Poor vitamin D status increases the risk of anemia and lower immune system function in school children: National Food and Nutrition Surveillance
Research has begun to unveil a role for vitamin D in iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis. Abundant vitamin D receptors exist in bone marrow, where vitamin D may directly activate erythroid precursor cells. Vitamin D may additionally suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to anemia. As children approach the teenage years (between the ages of 9 and 12), they experience an increased demand for iron and other micronutrients. This cross-sectional study explored the association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) and anemia in a large cohort of Iranian children.
MethodsThe study evaluated blood and anthropomorphic parameters in 937 children (aged 9-12). Anemia was defined as hemoglobin < 11.5 g/dL, iron-deficient anemia (IDA) was defined as anemia with ferritin < 15 micrograms/L, and at risk for IDA was defined as ferritin < 15 micrograms/L without anemia. Vitamin D sufficiency was defined as 25(OH)D > 50 nmol/L, insufficiency was defined as 25 to 50 nmol/L, and deficiency was defined as ≤ 25 nmol/L.
ResultsOverall, 13.3% of the children had anemia (10.8% of girls and 15.6% of boys), 12.8% were at risk of IDA, and 3.2% had IDA. Regarding vitamin D status, 64.2% had vitamin D deficiency, 28.1% had vitamin D insufficiency, and only 7.7% had vitamin D sufficiency. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly lower in the anemic children than in the non-anemic children (19.6 nmol/L vs 23.1 nmol/L; p=.003). After controlling for sex, body mass index, and intact parathyroid hormone, children with vitamin D deficiency were 3.45 times more likely to be anemic than children with vitamin D sufficiency (95% CI, 1.21-9.81). The increased risk of anemia started significantly at 25(OH)D < 44 nmol/L.
ConclusionsThe results of this study are congruent with previous population-based studies of micronutrient status in children, although US statistics have been somewhat less dire. The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), for example, found the incidence of anemia in children and teens to range from 4% to 16% and the incidence of vitamin D sufficiency to be as high as 67%. Still, this study brings to light an important association between vitamin D deficiency and anemia, a finding that could have significant clinical importance for children and teens.
Nikooyeh, B., & Neyestani, T.R. (2018). Poor vitamin D status increases the risk of anemia in school children: National Food and Nutrition Surveillance. Nutrition, 47, 69-74.
Liposomal D Supreme
Liposomal D Supreme provides vitamins D and K formulated with liposomal technology. Each serving of this citrus flavored formula provides 2500 IU of vitamin D3 and 325 mcg of vitamin K as K1 and K2.
Vitamin D is needed for a healthy immune system, and vitamins D and K act synergistically to support healthy bones and proper calcium balance in the body. Liposomes are spheres made of phospholipids—the primary building blocks of cell membranes. Owing to this structure, liposomes bond easily with cell membranes to facilitate intracellular delivery of their nutrient cargo. Thanks to this enhanced delivery and absorption, nutrients delivered in liposomal form offer superior absorption and bioavailability.
As a dietary supplement, take 0.5 mL (approx. 1 pump) and hold in mouth for 30 seconds before swallowing, or as directed by your health care practitioner.
Serving Size: 0.5mL (Approx. 1 pump)
Amount Per Serving
Vitamin D ... 62.5mg
Vitamin K ... 325mg
(as Vitamin K1 Phytonadione 200 mcg; Vitamin K2 Menaquinone-4 [MK-4] 100 mcg; Vitamin K2 Menaquinone-7 [MK-7] 25 mcg)
Other Ingredients: Water, glycerine, ethanol, vitamin E (as tocofersolan and natural mixed tocopherols), phospholipids (from sunflower lecithin), natural citrus oils.
Does not contain gluten or dairy.
Warning: Consult your health care practitioner before taking this product if you are taking Coumadin, warfarin or other anticoagulant medications.
Notice: This is a natural product that may exhibit color, taste and density variations from lot to lot.
Store at room temperature.
Keep out of reach of children.
Vitamin D Complex
Vitamin D Complex features 2000 IUs of vitamin D, along with efficacious amounts of the other fat-soluble vitamins, A, E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and K (K1 and K2). While there are a myriad of beneficial health attributes associated with vitamin D, it is extremely important to keep it in balance with these other vitamins. Research is emerging on the intricate interrelationships between them, which should make one think twice about dosing any of these supraphysiologically without the others.
Made with non-GMO ingredients.
Servings Per Container: 60
As a dietary supplement, take one capsule per day with a meal containing fat, or as directed by your health care practitioner.
Serving Size: One Capsule
Amount Per Serving
Vitamin A ... 5000IU
(as Retinyl Palmitate)
Vitamin D ... 2000IU
Vitamin E ... 8IU
(as d-alpha tocopherol)
Vitamin K ... 525mcg
(as Vitamin K1 Phytonadione 500mcg; Vitamin K2 Menaquinone-7 25mg)
High Gamma Mixed Tocopherols ... 50mg
(as d-gamma, d-delta, d-alpha, d-beta)
Tocotrienols ... 10mg
Other Ingredients: Cellulose (capsule), microcrystalline cellulose, vegetable stearate, silicon dioxide.